The Genesis of Radicalism, Marxism And Marxian Thought in 18th Century
An Article written for 138TH Years Memorial Anniversary of Karl Marx(1818-1883).
Sameen Y Saeed (Dr SYS)
Karl Marx was born in trier on May 1818 he raised up within his middle class family, he was also impacted the ideas from his in-law “Baron Ludwig”, father of Marx wife “Jenny Van Westaphalen, he was journalist, working with different newspaper companies. he had been supported by Frederick Engels through financially and intellectual ideas. Marx has been expelled many times by different countries due to his revolutionary ideas and optimistic views over that. he became stateless, from Germany to Paris, Belgium to Germany again later settled at London. he was the founder of conflict school of thought, which was also regarded as Marxian school of thought with vast adherents.
KARL MARX (The Young Marx)
Marx was born into bourgeoisie family precisely comfortable middle class in the year May 1818. he was the eldest surviving son out of his six family members. during the early time, he received liberal and enlightenment orientation through his in-law Baron Ludwig (father of Jenny Van Westaphalen). Marx’s in-law has impacted his mind thinking and reasoning behind idea of socialism.
consequently, in the year 1834 Marx was enrolled in the University of bonn Germany to study Law. but through out his stayed in bonn City University he specialised in writing poems, drinking and over spending. his father was unhappy with this attitudes, then he Marx to transfer to the University of Berlin, which was the more serious university (during his time) with intellectual and scholarly reputations. very soon Marx has became a better committed scholar, reading very high and indeed became addicts with his books.
During his study in Berlin University he joined the “Young Hegelians” which where popularly known as “Berlin doctors club” they were promoted the ideas of hegel dialectics which latter changed their intellectual careers at that time.
after the completion of his study, Marx became a journalist and editor with progressive newspaper in Germany. In 1843 the newspaper company was shutdown as a result of revolutionary outburst.
However, Marx had Married a daughter of his mentor Baron Ludwig, called “Jenny van westaphalen” in 1845
Fortunately later, he secured another Editorial job in Paris and he continued to expose the evils of exploitation resulted by capitalistic mode of production. the need for liberation of individual.
He collaborated with “Young Hegelians” such as ‘Mosses Hess’ as well as ‘Frederick Engels’ as a life long collaborator. with their collaboration, Engel has been supported Marx in many ways, generally he contributed substantially to Marxian thought in terms of editorial critics, resources, ideas as well as financing Marx together with his family. But later Marx has abandoned the philosophy of Hegel ( Hegelianism) and he also regreted for his dependency on Engels he wrote a later to hegel, said “fifty years I have been criticising capitalists instead of accumulating capital.”
MARX’S CONTROVERSY AND EXILE
Marx was optimistic that, with the revolution society would change positively. this was because the advancement of capitalism created last chance of working class. Marx has been expelled from Berlin due to his revolutionary mind, he also been expelled from Belgium in 1846 he later back to France, then later on back to Germany with another job in the radical newspaper. again he decided to travel out of Germany because of his troubles with that government, he dwelled in London finally upto the end of his life in 1883.
Marx was the most critique of laissez-faire economic and analysis of the precarious state of the proletariat. Marx was also unhappy with the nature of exploitation of man by man, with the advent of capitalism which is mainly on profit maximisation.
-Marx was the founder of conflict school of thought or rather, Marxian school of thought.
-Marx has postulated the theory of alienated labor(concept of alienation) as a critique to capitalism in Western societies.
The Communist manifesto in 1848, condition of working class.Marx along with his intimate collaborator Engels wrote their standard agenda and manifestation of the stateless society, its type of society where everyone in that society are sharing resources according to your needs, its also regarded as even society (equal resources power in society).
Marx before his demised has wrote 2 volumes of “Das capital” which is another book he intended to produce.
Some popular quotes by Karl Marx.
1- “Democracy is the road to socialism”
2- “it is not the consciousness of men that determine their being(life), rather on the contrary its their social beings that determine their consciousness”
3- “if anything is certain, it is that I my self am not a Marxist”
4- “when the wind of change has started nobody can stop it”
5- “to be a radical is to grasp things by the root”
6- “workers of the world unite: you have nothing to lose but your chain”
7- “history repeats it self, first as tragedy, second as farce”
8- “Man was born free but every where he’s in chains”
9- “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles”
10- “Religion is the opiate of the masses”
My recommendations would focus mainly on whether there is applicability of Marxian thought or not in my beloved country, Nigeria. Marx on alienation has undoubtedly criticised the system of exploitation of working class during his time, similar to our current situation in Nigeria many private companies and factories are exploiting their labourers in terms of the whole process of alienation, this is due to the lack of adequate job opportunities in Nigeria resulted to exploitation and underemployed.
Secondly, Marx ideas on revolution has no application in Nigeria?, revolution means total overthrowing the system of government. Which was according to Marx it would bring golden, colorful and comfortable positive change. But however in Nigeria revolution is not the only solution of the country but rather gradual change would solve the problems.
1,Sociological theory by George ritzer 8th edition,
2, sociological tradition by Robert Nisbet.
3, Karl Marx on Wikipedia search.
4, sociology of Marxism, a thesis in the Edinburgh University library.
The conflict paradigm of Marx, by Rosttan article.
SAMEEN Y SAEED (DR SYS)